Expansion

Alexander Liss

03/31/98; 02/27/00

Personal Expansion *

Child *

Teenager *

Adult *

Expansion and Adults-Teenagers Conflict *

Factors *

Artificial Environment *

Teenagers and their Parents *

Roles of Parents *

Yielding the Control *

Respect and Guided Expansion *

Directions of Expansion *

Joy of Perpetual Learning *

Creative Expansion as Basic Need *

Expansion of Society *

Tool of Expansion - Market *

Roots of Technological Revolution *

Limitations-Resources and Possession *

Specifics of Market as Tool of Expansion *

Market and Bureaucracy *

Desire as Basis of Market *

Common Mistakes of Demand-Supply Approach *

Speed of Market Expansion *

Anchors *

Market Management *

Managing Limitations *

Exploration *

Expansion of Biosphere *

Expansion and Constraints *

Fallacy of Teleological Terminology *

Fallacy of Evolution Theory *

 

There are phenomena, which can be consistently explained with the general concept of expansion.

 

Personal Expansion

Personal expansion is such a basic thing, that we tend to forget its importance.

Child

Childhood is full of visible signs of expansion. The physical body grows and reaches sexual maturity. The mind expands its reach and understanding. First it expands the control over the body and asserts this body-mind combination as self. It proceeds and establishes social interconnections and learns areas of its own control in the society. This body-mind-society combination asserts itself as a human being.

Teenager

Teenager goes through two processes of change running simultaneously - the change in the functioning of the body and the change in the social position.

Both processes are a crisis stretched for a few years. One, who learns to manage this crisis successfully, has experience of the crisis management, which is useful by itself.

Both processes are expansions.

A teenager has to perpetually acquire control of expanding abilities of the body. In addition, a teenager has to acquire control and responsibility of expanding area. This is an introduction in adulthood - learning unprotected functioning in the world.

All this is difficult and requires experimentation. Fortunately, the process is stretched in time - in each particular moment, a teenager can concentrate on a small amount of problems. If a teenager is lucky, than there is help available from parents

 

Adult

While expansion of a child is managed by the society, starting with immediate society - parents, it is not balanced. It has to go fast, and it relies on support structure, which has to protect from the dangers.

Expansion of a normal adult is balanced and unprotected - an adult carries responsibility for his actions.

The reason is simple - each adult stands in place, where there is no knowledge of what is right and what is wrong. We understand it only after the step is made. Each step of an adult is a (small) social experiment.

Hence, the task of expansion of an adult is much more difficult, than a task of expansion of a child. However, every personal success in this process is the success of the society as whole, because it is a success in learning of new area previously inaccessible to the society.

Each step of expansion gives us new area of functioning and of control - new area of "presence".

Technology gives great opportunity for personal expansion. We expand our "presence" and "merge" with mechanical tools, kitchen appliances, air-conditioning systems, automobiles, etc.

Participation in social life, political life, business life gives new opportunities for expansion, especially when the society itself expands.

However, our personal expansions meet "possessions" and expansions of other people. The civilized society has created a special system of rules and rituals, which allows keeping the collective expansion in balance without serious conflicts.

Expansion and Adults-Teenagers Conflict

 

Factors

The difficulties of communication between adults and teenagers arise from two major factors.

First, adults and teenagers have substantially different basic experience, even when they live side-by-side. They have different problems; hence, their perception is tuned differently.

Second, teenagers are entering the complex world of adult relationships, with its areas of control, division of power, etc. They are changing the precious balance of this world. On the side of teenagers is energy and courage (often based on inexperience). On the side of adults is experience and (unwritten and unspoken) common front against intruders-teenagers.

 

Artificial Environment

Often, adults create artificial environment, where teenagers are locked until they pass their extremely active age. If the society cannot afford destabilizing activity of teenagers, then this is a prudent tactic. Otherwise, this is a waste of experimentation, which can be an important engine of social change.

 

Teenagers and their Parents

Teenagers are in the contradicting situation. They have to acquire their new social position; hence, they have to fight adults. In the same time, they do not have enough understanding about social structure and they need guidance and acceptance by adults.

Their possible allies (may be only allies in this situation) are their parents. However very often, parents do not understand, what is needed from them, and they try to do all kinds of strange things.

Some are too restrictive, as if this age is kind of illness, which has to be lived through with minimal losses.

Some try to be friends with their kids, as if kids need more friends. In this age, it is easy to acquire friends among peers. Kids need parents.

Some try to give as much freedom as possible, leaving kids confused and dangerously experimenting.

Some treat teenagers as adults, keeping them completely responsible for their actions. Teenagers are confused with all changes, which occur with them, and do not know how to control new emotions, yet.

 

Roles of Parents

While the situation is complicated, there are general ideas, which help in finding the balance in the parents-teenagers relationship. These ideas come from the understanding of the teenagers' process of expansion.

There are a few parenting roles, which teenagers need their parents to play.

Parents should be the support structure. This is a passive role. Teenagers have to be sure, that parents are

Parents should be the early warning system and the protective wall against possible irreversible transgressions, which are numerous and not clearly specified. Teenagers need parents to be firm in some issues as criminal behavior, drugs, etc. They need this firmness, because this is how they distinguish really important issues from other, with which teenagers can (and should) experiment.

 

Yielding the Control

Parents should be ready to yield some of their control. Expansion of teenager starts in the area controlled by parents. A teenager needs some room for expansion. If this room is not given, the teenager has to fight for it against his/her own parents. The teenager has to fight against own support structure.

The contradiction of this situation is hardly tolerable for either side - a teenager and parents.

 

Respect and Guided Expansion

There are a few simple tools, which can help manage this situation.

One is respect.

Children have to be taught perpetually to respect their parents, starting with early age. If they respect parents, they do not ruin their support structure, when they need it the most.

Parents have to respect children - they should not dismiss children’s internal reasoning, which leads to unusual actions. If this reasoning is different from one, which parents employ, it does not mean that it is wrong. First, children live in somewhat different circumstances; second, they have somewhat different knowledge, which can be more adequate to current circumstances than parents’ knowledge.

The other tool is careful guidance of the child’s expansion.

After all, there is nothing as important in life as ability to make right decisions. This ability does not come from learning of a few examples of good decisions. It comes from trials and errors, from victories and defeats. This ability is a big part of adulthood.

Really caring parents start teaching this early on. They expand the area of control granted to the child each day a little bit. Each day a little bit more, than the child is ready to handle.

This produces a gradual steady expansion, gradual movement into adulthood. It is better to start this process before a child becomes a teenager - in this case the teenager has less stress related to the rapid expansion, because he/she has already some experience of this expansion.

 

Directions of Expansion

There are many directions of possible expansion. Not all of them are actually available.

A child acquires his own space - his body, his mental abilities, his culture, etc. Parents prevent a child from straying away from this area of expansion. They bound the child for the child’s own good.

It is very important to have control in own space. It is so easy to acquire in childhood. It is very hard to learn later.

The moment comes, when the child has to learn how to make decisions in the area where there are no clear criteria where to go. In this moment parents loosen their protective control and give the young person ability to grow into adulthood. At this point nothing is more important, as learning the ability to make own decisions and carry responsibility for them.

For the adult the process of identification of the direction of possible expansion is inseparable from the process of expansion itself. From the historic experience we have some primitive classifications of these directions.

For example, some take way of inner development (introverts), others change the world around (extroverts). Both change themselves and change the world around. Introverts share their discoveries, which can dramatically change society, extroverts get in touch with people and situations, which can dramatically change their approach to the world, their mentality, bring the depth of understanding of inner workings of human being.

 

Joy of Perpetual Learning

Learning gives the ability to make better decisions in unknown situation; hence, it should give a general feeling of better preparedness; it should make people feel better instantly. Kids know that and scientists know that. The majority of adults had lost this feeling of joy. There are many reasons why: school is a joy killer, people around do not like smart ones (smart have competitive advantage), the general tiredness from the hard life, etc. Whatever it is, it does not change the nature of the learning and the joy of it.

Learning is a vanguard of the adult’s expansion. It prepares the conceptual and logical foundation for it. It produces set of images, which an adult can use in planning of variants of this expansion and variants of possible retreats.

 

Creative Expansion as Basic Need

The desire to expand is as natural as the desire to breathe, to the degree, that we do not realize it as long as we have the expansion.

Human being is a social creature, hence it carries traits, which reproduce themselves in the life of society; traits, which are in balance with the society as a stable entity. The desire of personal expansion is one of such traits.

Society perpetually faces all kinds of challenges and it depletes resources, which it uses. Hence, it has to be able to anticipate the challenges and it has to be on the move simply to survive. There is only one way how this can be done - with perpetual experimentation, which allows to identify the challenges before it is too late, and which allows finding the ways for the next move.

This experimentation leads to expansion - we accept only changes, which bring us in the better state, than one, in which we are now. Societies, which members experiment perpetually - which members expand themselves and all together expand the society, these societies have a chance to survive, others - don’t.

Hence, if the human being belongs to the stable society, then this human being has a drive to experiment and expand. This drive does not have clear individual explanation, as sexual drive. Nevertheless, it is very strong.

We insist, that the ability to experiment, the ability to creatively expand is a Basic Need of any normal human being. We can see the similar drive in animals.

Note that drive to expand does not guaranty expansion - there are external limitations, and we have limited abilities.

Limit one’s ability to expand and you see the pathologic reaction.

One escapes into the world of fantasy - books, television, alcohol, drugs, etc.

The other feels the limitation and does not understand what it is and fights everything around, simply because of sharp feeling of discomfort.

The adult immediately interprets this limitation as the attack on the precious thing - freedom; the adult launches the war against those, who impose this limitation.

The broken one, or one who was born and trained into slavery, accepts it as a way the things are, blames oneself for being not adapted to this limitation.

 

Expansion of Society

Normally, the population of a society grows. Growing population itself makes the society an expanding system.

Each member of the society is expanding (as we defined above). This is an additional dimension of social expansion.

There are many possible Directions of Expansion of the Society. Society as organism, chooses directions, in which to expand.

Some are acquiring knowledge about the Nature, acquiring natural resources, establishing effective control over other Societies, etc. Others are acquiring knowledge about Society in general and itself in particular, reorganizing itself, establishing effective control over its own functioning, etc.

Humanity had tried many of them.

So far, development of sciences (natural and social), arts, and development of public education were successful expansions.

Colonial expansion was costly and was finally scrapped and replaced with closely interconnected markets. Colonialism looked as a good way of the expansion, until colonialists found themselves so busy maintaining their colonial power, that they were paying with normal development of the members of their society and even with many lives of members of their society. Now this does not look as a good idea any more.

 

Tool of Expansion - Market

Some societies make the satisfaction of basic needs in food and shelter of their members their first priority. The goal is noble, but as a result, they can barely achieve that. There are many reasons why they do not succeed.

The most important and the least mentioned reason is the need for personal expansion of each member of the society, and when this need is not satisfied, the social unrest starts and as a consequence - the autocratic rule comes, with all its horrors.

This idealistic approach to social engineering, when satisfaction of basic needs for food and shelter takes priority, was tried in many variants and, inevitably, it led to some miserable for the members of society results.

There are a few exceptions though. When the society is in a difficult situation, because of the limited natural resources or external suppression or external danger, this approach can be prudent.

It is more effective for the society to engage in the accumulation of wealth, in the process of which the satisfaction of basic needs is done automatically.

What we get from Market in the area of our basic needs, is rather a side effect of market functioning. However, this is a logical side effect, the effect, which we should expect. By the nature of Market, if there is a possibility to improve something in the area of basic need, then this possibility is explored first.

Market-based society has a particular tendency to political freedom.

Expansion and experimentation is in the essence of free market, hence free market has hard time coexisting with rigid political structures. Maturation of the market economy forces political changes - introduction of more democratic, freer society. From the other hand, democratic societies have natural tendency of utilization of the free market. Hence, we see a stable social structure - a combination of market economy and democratic society.

There are other stable social structures, which employ market economy, however we suspect, that they are less stable, than this one, and serious shake-up of the society should lead ether to abandonment of market, or to introduction of broader political freedoms.

 

Roots of Technological Revolution

There is one mystery, which can be easily explained with the concept of expansion - this is the phenomenon of Technological Revolution.

As much we are accustomed to the interpretation of technological advances as something desirable, there are many thinkers and social movements, which reject this point of view.

If we leave alone the realm of controversial philosophy and look at the actual economic development of former socialist countries, we see an interesting phenomenon. Socialist countries did not have an internal drive for technological advances. All advances were driven by the forces external to economy.

First, it was a special political drive for "industrialization", which had a few goals:

None of these goals were economic.

Later, technological advances of socialist countries were driven practically exclusively by the military competition with countries, which rely on market economy. Leave aside military-industrial complex of these countries, and you see the slow technological development, which barely keeps up with the need to feed, clothe and shelter the expanding population.

The Technological Revolution is driven by the need of the social expansion, which is satisfied by the expanding control in the technological sphere. This is achieved with the help of the Market.

Perpetual Technological Revolution is one great invention, which allows social expansion at the minimal cost to the members of the society. It has its own side effects, for example, an enormous destructive power of the weapon, which can be produced with its help, or rapid social changes, which come with the fast transportation.

 

Limitations-Resources and Possession

The limitations of market-based expansion of the society are called "Resources". Reduction of these limitations is managed by the market tool "Possession".

In different phases of market development, different limitations are important.

Thus industrial revolution diminished the importance of the possession of agricultural land and made possessions of oil, ore, knowledge of manufacturing, etc. more important.

Current "informational" revolution makes possession of information processing and transmitting more important than oil, ore, manufacturing, etc.

The changing structure of ownership seems to be a norm in the Market development.

It was a time, when members of society owned means of satisfaction of their needs: fertile land, fishing rights, hunting rights, etc. Market-based society destroyed this structure - the majority of the society now belongs to the Labor. While "owner" relies on the trade-exchange with other members of the society, the laborer needs to get the job, to survive. Even private business ownership was too rigid for the speedy Market expansion, and it was replaced with the public "ownership", where shareholders are not actually owners, but investors.

 

Specifics of Market as Tool of Expansion

Market is not a perfect tool of expansion of the society, it has some very serious limitations. It can work only when special conditions are met. Hence, if a society employs it, then it has to supply these conditions. One of these conditions is the acceptance by members of the society of the accumulation of wealth as a major personal goal. The other is the assurance of the functioning of the market free from monopolies, etc.

 

Market and Bureaucracy

Market and Bureaucracy nicely coexist in the market-based society. The important part of the bureaucratic structure of the society is the Bureaucracy of big businesses. The Bureaucracy is very good in delivery of more of the same. However, the Bureaucracy by its nature is the enemy of radical innovation. This is its strength - the Bureaucracy provides stability and continuity. This is its weakness - the Bureaucracy is in the perpetual conflict with the Market, which goal (at least one of goals) is the expansion through the innovation.

Bureaucracy produces a special problem of the management of innovation. Serious break-through in the area, where the Bureaucracy functions, threatens the stability of the Bureaucracy, requires changes in functioning and in the structure of the Bureaucracy, with an unknown outcome. Hence, the Bureaucracy, by its nature, resists radical innovations. If the Bureaucracy is not designed and managed properly, it resists small innovations also.

Bureaucracies employed in the Market have built-in structures, which promote innovations, but only innovations of limited nature. They are small incremental improvements. The well-designed Bureaucracy manages these small incremental improvements well, and they are the main source of survivability of the Bureaucracy in the Market.

The chain of incremental improvements starts with some break-through, with some seriously new business idea. After this break-through is achieved, the Bureaucracy can take over and move the chain of incremental improvements.

The difficult balance between the Market and particular business Bureaucracy is established by the special bread of workers - business executives. If we can judge by their compensation, this is a difficult work, which requires rare skills.

The importance of breaks-through is so big, that society is ready to compensate greatly ones that are skillful enough and lucky enough to make it. There are many tools, which support breaks-through:

Still, many can attest, that what we have is not enough. The Market expansion depends more and more on intensive expansion, based on innovations, and less and less on extensive expansion, based in increasing volumes of similar products. Hence, the society needs more tools of encouragement and testing of the business innovations (including new products based on new technical ideas), and it needs to add flexibility to existing ones.

The whole class of problems of introduction of the business innovations can be summarized with one observation - the price of entry in majority of market sectors is traditionally very high, and the existing system resists the lowering of it.

 

Desire as Basis of Market

Simple economies allow easy tracking of the product to the basic needs of people from one side and natural resources from the other. However, even in these economies, we encounter "unexplainable" articles of luxury or cult, which creation, circulation and consumption in the society is a major economic force.

In the developed economies the satisfaction of basic needs does not drive the economy. If the products, which serve to satisfy basic needs, become a substantial part of economic activity, then this is a clear sign of a deep economic crisis, when the economy dissipated to the most primitive level. This is not a natural state of the economy.

Basic needs are so obvious areas of possible Market expansion that the Market rushes to expand there as soon it has any ability to function. After that, the main activity of the market goes elsewhere.

Developed economy relies on developed system of interconnected desires of members of the society. This system reproduces itself - one set of desires is supported by the other. Only a small part of these desires can be deduced to the desires to satisfy basic needs.

The developed market-based society is engaged in perpetual development of this system of desires. New desires are cultivated with introduction of new products, which deliver new values. Old desires are questioned, again with introduction of new products, which suppose to replace old ones.

This process is complex. Art plays a big role in it. Art helps in the creation of new desires. This one of the reasons, why arts are well developed in market-based societies and poorly developed in socialist societies. Art is used as a tool of Market expansion in marketing.

The introduction of new products is the creation of demand, creation of new desires. Hence, each step of the Market expansion is the creation of a pair: public desire and the product. As much the demand can be created, the supply supports it.

The desire is artificial, hence, it needs perpetual recreation.

The companies, which advertise less than other companies selling similar product, actually piggy-back on others' work of recreation of the desire for this kind of product. However, when their market share grows, they are forced to contribute to this process of perpetual recreation of demand.

Perpetual generation of desires is a special activity in the market. There is a special sector of the market dedicated to this activity - marketing and advertising.

Desire generators do not generate revenue directly, but very often, there is a possibility to attach a revenue producing business to the area of perpetually recreated desires.

This how they exist in the market together - desire generating and revenue producing.

The Internet brought new attractive services, which became the roots of new desires. As soon they become mature - they perpetually reinvent themselves to keep people attracted, they can be used as a companion of a revenue producing business.

This is not simple, but when it happens, the new market possibilities open up.

 

Common Mistakes of Demand-Supply Approach

The economic models based on the analysis of demand on products, which can satisfy basic needs, and their supply, can be quite useful. However, they brought general thinking in terms of supply-demand with a slew of concepts (supply side economics, shortage of supply of labor, falling demand on particular type of product, etc.), which are actively used in decision-making, and which are not quantitative models, but rather ideas, which we assume self-evident. But they are not, and often, they simply lead to wrong decisions.

The problem is, that there are relatively narrow areas, where these two phenomena - supply and demand, can be treated as independent. These areas are - the satisfaction of basic needs and natural resources. This is a reason, why effective quantitative models, based on these concepts, exist only in these areas.

Beyond these areas, application of similar qualitative models (with independent supply and demand) requires great care. While these models are in hands of scientists, who’s every step is scrutinized by the colleges, their use is relatively safe.

However, the general public needs economic ideas, concepts and models; and demand-supply approach to economic analysis became a common place; and many assume that demand and supply are independent factors.

The familiar example is the analysis of the labor force. The rate of unemployment is often interpreted as the degree of imbalance between the demand of businesses for the labor and market’s supply of this "product" - labor. This model does not work for the same reason the other similar models do not work: the artificial extraction of two factors as main factors of complex situation, when these factors are interrelated, is only misleading.

Only in Markets with mostly extensive mode of operation, where the types of businesses are fixed, and Market expansion goes through the production of more of the same with the same technology, the low unemployment rate means that Market hits its limitation and, hence, has to slow down. In intensive economies, low unemployment rate means changing the focus to new technologies, means new opportunities for the Market expansion - development of new areas. This kind of Market expansion even can produce temporary shortage of labor in new areas, which does not mean any negative development of the Market.

 

Speed of Market Expansion

There is a remarkable Market property - there is a minimal level of the speed of Market expansion.

Without Market, the society can postpone economic expansion in times, when internal social imbalance have to be solved, or hard conditions of the nature happened, or society got under the external pressure from the another society. However, the Market does not have the luxury of slow movement.

The developed Market is based on the system of credit and investment - this is what makes it flexible. However, credit and investment can work only, if the return on investment (in real terms) is big enough to offset the risk and make this activity profitable. Hence, we have the minimal speed of the Market expansion.

If the Market hits limitations that it cannot expand with the speed above this level, then it cannot work at all, and the wealth of society deteriorates rapidly.

This deterioration stops, when new opportunities for the visibly sustainable Market expansion appear. For example, the economy is destroyed to the degree, that the new playing field is ready for the Market expansion.

Governments often understand how to stop the process of the Market deterioration. They create new opportunities for expansion as public works or military build-up.

More sophisticated approach involves the removal of limitations, which keep Market from expanding.

The easiest part is removal of limitations imposed by the government - high taxes, trade restrictions, restrictions on the way the business is conducted (deregulation). It is much more difficult to remove limitations of social customs and habits, limitations of low level of education, or low level of the knowledge, and limitations imposed by other societies to keep this society subdued.

 

Anchors

Expansion is only one of many needs of society and its members. Market based society imposes serious demands on its members and the rewards of it should outweigh the price for the society to put-up with it for a long time.

The most important reward of the Market is satisfying basic needs of the members of the society. However, because it twists the life of the members of the society, we have to enumerate among basic needs much more, than it seems to be warranted from an abstract point of view.

In a market-based society, members of the society exist in the conditions, which they would not create on their own volition, if they were to make decisions. The pace of change is faster than it feels to be comfortable, the life style is strange and uncomfortable, dangers to the health and even life are big, etc.

Hence, in the market-based society among basic needs together with need for food, shelter and other obvious needs, we have to enumerate needs for safety, healthcare, transportation, life space, entertainment, etc.

The problem is not new: the society of ancient Rome viewed the need for entertainment as a basic need.

Together with natural needs, a society had some pathological needs, because it is a part of the bigger society, which we cannot characterize as healthy. They are needs to defend itself. Market provides for these needs also.

The ability of the Market to provide for needs of society and its members is a set of Anchors, which allow the Market to exist in the society for a long time.

However, Market provides for needs of society as a byproduct of its functioning. The Market being an automatic system, does not "know", the importance of these Anchors and it is a duty of a government (and a political system) to redistribute the wealth generated by the market to support basic needs.

The success of a government in this area can be easily measured by the degree of satisfaction of needs of the poorest part of population.

How this is done vary and should vary, because any rigid system, which is not a part of the Market, is a subject of subversion by the Market.

 

Market Management

History shows that absence of the Market management or its mismanagement often leads to horrible results. As with any powerful tool, the use of the Market by the society requires some degree of maturity - ability to make decisions, to analyze mistakes and correct them. Market should not be left to its own devices. It should be monitored and controlled consciously.

This task is extremely difficult - there is not much of experience in this area, we have even less theory here. Hence, we need specialists, who as a part of the government prepare that little, which is available, as a basis for the political decisions. In addition, we need a wide discussion of this subject through the scientific research and through the familiarization of the general public with it. After all, the Market management decisions can be as difficult to understand, as decisions of Federal Reserve Bank, and the public has to be prepared to follow them, and to control them through elected officials.

There are many tools, which can be used as Market management tools.

 

Managing Limitations

One of the big dangers for the Market expansion is hitting the limitation of the natural resource, for example oil. In this case, the chain of events unfolds as follows.

The Market acts on anticipation, that its basic characteristics stay intact. When it hits the limitation of the natural resource, it responds with higher prices, which should help to overcome the temporary limitations and allow about the same speed of Market expansion. But limitation is not temporary and higher prices do not work. The next step is dying out of types of goods and services, which were available at lower prices for that natural resource. This is clearly the destruction of the wealth of the society.

The economy and the society need time to generate new forms of the wealth in these new circumstances. One way to give it this time is keeping the speed of the Market expansion low, that society does not use-up a limited resource fast enough to create a crisis.

By far, the least expansive and the most effective way of stimulating the market is merging of a few markets together. In this case, we have opening of new expansion opportunities for all parties involved. It is always hard to predict how the unified market will behave, but practically always the combined wealth generated by the unified market is bigger than the sum of its components. Obviously, the operation of this magnitude should be done carefully - all involved societies have to have enough time and resources to adjust.

There are many ways, how this merging is done. Improved transpiration was the main tool a while ago. Dropped customs and other limitations of the governments are current tools. Next can be changes, which make trade and transportation less expensive (there are still many artificial limitations in this area).

It has to be stated clearly, that introductions of any limitations, which have economic effect, lead to the destruction of the wealth of the society. This happens because limitations limit the speed of market expansion, create unanticipated barriers and the need for the restructuring of the market. Hence, this tool of market management has to be used with extreme caution.

What we see is just the opposite - politicians eagerly advocate for the introduction of protective measures in behalf of particular industry or Labor groups. The introductions of such limitations can have just the opposite effect - shrinking of the Market, and losses of the group, which is expected to be protected.

US society has an unusual factor - immigration. Immigration is a fact of the US economy. The Market anticipates some level of immigration and functions accordingly. Limit the immigration rapidly, even locally, and you have a crisis, which hurts everyone, including those who’s well-being this measure is expected to protect.

 

Exploration

All forms of exploration potentially have the positive effect on economy, because they test possible ways of the expansion of the Market. The recent dramatic example is space exploration. It was launched for many reasons; economic reasons were not among them. Now the Market moved into communication satellites, geo-positioning system, etc.

In the old times, geographic explorations led to economic expansion.

The thing with exploration is - in the beginning it does not have a hint of its future economic usability. Even more - many results are economically useless. In spite of it, the mature market-based society has to dedicate the substantial amount of resources to the exploration. This can protect the Market from hitting the situation, where there is no ready area of expansion. If there is no area to expand for the Market, then an automatic deterioration of the wealth of the society starts.

Market forces do not support this kind of exploration - there is no clear economic value in it. This exploration has to be supported by other means. "Subconsciously" market-based societies know that - there is always an enthusiastic support of population of the adventures, where the stretch of the creative energy of the society is needed.

For many years US Market was a subject of an unusual challenge - the baby-boomers demographic wave. This wave itself opened many new possibilities and stimulated Market expansion. It is still working, however its influence diminishes. While it stimulates some sectors of economy, as financial sector for example, it causes the shrinking of the desires in other sectors, which baby-boomers leave. It means that now more than ever the country needs explorations, which prepare the ground for the future Market expansion.

 

 

Expansion of Biosphere

 

Expansion and Constraints

Life obviously expands - species multiply, particular individual life forms explore their space, etc.

Expansion is a basic property of Biosphere.

We observe that particular individual life forms are highly limited in their ability to expand. In the same time the Biosphere is highly effective in this respect - bacteria are present high in the air, deep in the water, and deep in the earth.

This effectiveness is achieved with a simple mechanism of random tries.

New individual life forms are slightly different from ones, from which they originated. Hence, they can explore new possibilities.

Mutations - faults in the mechanism of procreation, fit nicely into the mechanism of the Expansion of the Biosphere. Big random jump-changes in the process of creation of new life forms allow exploration of some otherwise unavailable opportunities.

While there is room, the expansion is extensive - new territories, new resources, and new life styles.

Some parts of the Biosphere are stranded in the situation with limited resources, on an island for example. In this case, the individual life forms do not have the room for an extensive expansion. They could simple stop multiplying, but they do not do this. They move to intensive expansion, where the Biosphere finds the way to support an expanding population with the same resources. Usually, it is achieved (automatically) with specialization - some individual life forms abandon part of their universal abilities and develop abilities of more effective use of some narrow set of resources.

This leads to the special social organization and specialization of bodies of individual life forms. Eventually, this specialization goes so far, that we can distinguish separate species.

This "intensive" form of expansion of the Biosphere is mostly defined by constrains, imposed on this particular stranded part of it.

Similar constraints cause similar patterns of development.

It seems that there are not too many stable patterns of development in the presence of some severe limitations on resources needed to satisfy basic needs of life forms. We observe that even humans utilize in such severe conditions forms of social organization, which animals use.

 

Fallacy of Teleological Terminology

This process of expansion of the Biosphere can be described in teleological terms, with some serious qualifications. For example, one can say that Expansion is a "goal" of the Biosphere and it uses random changes (including in the procreation mechanism) as tools to achieve this goal.

However, this terminology has a few major flaws.

First, what is "good" for the Biosphere is not necessarily "good" for an individual life form, in the sense, which we associate with the word "good".

A new life form, which is more efficient in the resource use, can have shorter life, or it can be so specialized that when conditions change, it cannot adapt. This is not what we understand as "better adapted", "better fit".

Second, teleological terminology is present in religious teachings. This terminology has its pitfalls and the religion had learnt in ages how to deal with them. The science was developed on a different basis and it does not have safeguards against primitive human impulses triggered by the teleological terminology.

We can describe nicely everything in terms of Expansion of the Biosphere facilitated by random changes, Constraints-resources and patterns of development induced by these Constraints.

 

Fallacy of Evolution Theory

The phenomenon of the Expansion of the Biosphere is traditionally described with the Evolution Theory.

The Evolution Theory is very popular and proved to be extremely controversial and even dangerous.

First, it uses the teleological language, which pitfalls we described above.

This is not a small issue. The evolution theory was placed by communists in a quasi-religious foundation of their ideology.

Some people try to create their personal primitive religion based on the Evolution Theory with the idea of "survival of the fittest", etc.

Second, the Evolution Theory describes this process of development of Biosphere as "adaptation", which is extremely misleading. If the nature is perpetually changing, what do life forms adapt to? In addition, the activity of life forms changes the environment.

It could be useful, when it is used to describe some very stable environment, but it is used as a general theory.

In any case, everything the Evolution Theory can present as a coherent model of the nature, can be presented better and with more ways of finding valuable results with the ideas of Expansion of the Biosphere, Constraints and patterns of development induced by these Constraints.

This approach allows consistent analysis of effects of changing limitations, which the Evolution Theory cannot explain.