Working under Water


Complex work is done by teams of highly skilled specialists, who communicate between themselves and divide tasks during the work. With such work arrangement, they stay on location and fuel, materials, etc. are delivered to them. In some cases, they even live on location and fresh water, food, etc. are delivered to them. Often, this kind of work is well compensated and, more importantly, it is stimulating and satisfying.

To work underwater with arrangement, special “tools” and methods of organization are needed.


Worker, Supply and Delivery Submarines

    Each worker needs a small submarine with internal combustion engine and a few manipulators – a worker-submarine. Some manipulators are used to immobilize the submarine, other - to manipulate external environment.

Air and fuel for the worker-submarine and air, and fresh water for the worker using it, comes from a different, large submarine – from a supply-submarine, which should be near the work location, beneath the weather, but close to the surface. A worker-submarine periodically rises and connects to a supply-submarine to get its supplies.

A supply-submarine periodically gets compressed air, fresh water and fuel from surface ships, often even without surfacing.

A delivery-submarine delivers materials to the work location, which are offloaded with help of worker-submarines.

Supply submarines also transport worker-submarines between work locations and facilitate minor repairs of worker-submarines. They have “portals”, where worker-submarines could attach. A worker can move through such a portal between a worker-submarine and the supply-submarine. To save space, the worker sleeps in the worker-submarine even during transport.

There is a special chamber in a supply-submarine, where entire worker-submarine could fit and water pumped out. This chamber is used to provide repairs of worker-submarines.



    A worker could spend many days in his worker-submarine, without living it.

The worker-submarine should support a range of activities:

·        resting, sleeping, physical exercises, washing, urination and defecation,

·        eating and drinking,

·        working, including control of manipulators, control of submarine’s engine, driving the submarine, etc.

·        control of supporting structures, as storage tanks storing compressed air, fresh water and fuel, illuminating devices, communication system to communicate with other workers in their submarines and supply-submarines.

It needs special systems:

·        a chair-bed, where a worker spends the majority of his time in the worker-submarine,

·        the system of remote viewing, which is used to control manipulators and to drive the submarine (see Remote Viewing on this site),

·        a special toilet, which is used to collect excrements in a “sewer” tank, which is flushed using external water.

The chair-bed should be used to:

·        work, drive submarine, communicate,

·        rest and sleep,

·        exercise and wash,

·        eat.


Hydraulics Based Systems

    In a submarines of this type, where pumping liquids and air, is used widely, the engine should be Pumping Engine (see Pumping Engine on this site), transmission should be Hydraulic Transmission (see Hydraulic Transmission on this site), and motor, which used to move the submarine, should be a pump, which takes outboard water in front of the submarine and expels it at its back, to propel submarine forward, and in a few other directions, to change direction of its movement.

    Electricity should be produced using reciprocating electric generator using Hydraulic Transmission and should be stored in a battery.

    Manipulators should operate using hydraulic power via Hydraulic Transmission. Control of manipulators could be hydraulic or electric.



    It is cold under water, hence heating of the cabin is crucial. Some amount of heat should be extracted from the cooling system of the Engine. Getting additional heat would require a special “furnace”, where valuable fuel should be burnt and valuable air should be used. Hence, the system, which cools the Engine and heats the cabin, should be efficient.  


Air Management

    Air in such submarine is used to control buoyancy, to support burning of fuel in the engine and in a special “furnace” to produce additional heat.

Most importantly, it is used for breathing. For breathing, air pressure has to be ratcheted down in discrete portions. This ratcheted down chills the air in the cabin and additional heating would be needed to compensate.

Air for breathing should be renewed and used air should be fed to the engine or the “furnace’. A special air compressor should perpetually pump air from the cabin for such use or venting. Reduced air pressure in the cabin should trigger additional input of fresh air. This way, in the cabin should be a stream of fresh air.


An Enclosure Inside an Enclosure

    To protect the worker inside the submarine, the cabin of it should be enclosed in Inner Enclosure with tight control of all cables and pipes entering it and with means to block potential entry of external water through these points of entry. This would be the Inner Enclosure.

    All the systems, which do not need to be inside the cabin, should be outside the Inner Enclosure and enclosed with Outer Enclosure.

    A “cabin access channel” should be made through the space between the Inner Enclosure and Outer Enclosure.  It should provide protection of worker’s movement between the cabin and place outside the submarine.

    The chair-bed allows efficient utilization of the space of the cabin, hence the cabin could be made small and this simplifies its protection.

    Worker submarine is not expected to travel far on its own, hence its shape should be selected to facilitate safety, comfort of the worker, and efficiency of the use of manipulators.


Systems Between Enclosures

    Following is a partial list of systems between Enclosures:

·        Buoyancy Control System,

·        Supply Tanks: Compressed Air, Fresh Water, Fuel,

·        Excrements Tank,

·        Engine, “furnace”,

·        Inner Enclosure Heater,

·        Hydraulic Transmission,

·        Electric Generator and Electric Battery,

·        Air Compressor,

·        Propulsion,

Alexander Liss 5/4/2020